Zachar: is term is derived from the word for a pointy sword and refers to a phallus. It is usually translated as “male” in English.
Nekevah: is term is derived from the word for a crevice and probably refers to a vaginal opening. It is usually translated as “female” in English.
Androgynos: A person who has both “male” and “female” sexual characteristics. 149 references in Mishna and Talmud (1st-8th Centuries CE); 350 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes (2nd -16th Centuries AD).
Tumtum: A person whose sexual characteristics are indeterminate or obscured. 181 references in Mishna and Talmud; 335 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes.
Ay’lonit: A person who is identified as “female” at birth but develops “male” characteristics at puberty and is infertile. 80 references in Mishna and Talmud; 40 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes.
Saris: A person who is identified as “male” at birth but develops “female” characteristics as puberty and/or is lacking a penis. A saris can be “naturally” a saris (saris hamah), or become one through human intervention (saris adam). 156 references in mishna and Talmud; 379 in classical midrash and Jewish law codes.
Aggada (The way we tell our stories):
Text Study on Bereshit Rabba 8:1
God created the adam in His own image; in the image of God He created him – male and female [God] created them. — Genesis 1:27
Said Rabbi Jeremiah ben Elazar: “When the Holy One, blessed be the One, created the first adam, [God] created him [an] “androgynos.” As there it is written: ‘When God created the adam, He made him in the likeness of God; male and female [God] created them.’
— Genesis 5:2
Said Rabbi Shmuel Bar Nachman: “At the time that the Holy One, blessed be the One, created the first adam, He created him double-faced and [then] split him, and made for him two backs – a back here and a back there.” They asked him: “But isn’t it written: ‘and He took one of his ribs [tzelah]’?” He said to them: “[This actually means] one of his sides...as we understand it, ‘and one of the sides [tzelah] of the tabernacle.’”— Exodus 26:20
Rabbi Tanchuma in the name of Rabbi Benayah and Rabbi Berechya in the name of Rabbi Elazar said: “At the time that the Holy One, blessed be the One, created the first adam, [He] created him as a golem [an unformed physical substance]; and it was extended from one end of the world to its other end, as there it is written: “My golem Your eyes have seen...” (Psalm 139:16) — Midrash Rabbah 8
Keep in mind—in Judaism, only Jews are adam (man):
Note Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai’s ruling: “…only ‘you,’ the members of the Jewish people, are called men, but non-Jews are not called men.”
How Hasidic Sages Supported Transgender People — 200 Years Ago
by Forverts Staff, July 5, 2018
A Torah Lesson on Gender with “Abby” Stein
“Isaac was born with the soul of a woman… we know how reincarnation works…Sometimes, for whatever reason, the soul gets switched…”
Profuse thanks for the research leads from